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INDONESIA GOVERNMENT SYSTEM

SISTEM PEMERINTAHAN INDONESIA
INDONESIA GOVERNMENT SYSTEM
Opening Paragraph IV of the 1945 Constitution states that Indonesia's national independence arranged to form the Constitution of the State of Indonesia which was formed in an array of the Republic of Indonesia which berkedaulatan people. Under Article 1, Paragraph 1 of the 1945 Constitution, the State of Indonesia is a unitary state is a republic. On this basis it can be concluded that Indonesia is a unitary state form, while the form of government is republican.

Apart form the unitary state and republican form of government, the President of the Republic of Indonesia came to power as heads of state and head of government. It was based on Article 4 Paragraph 1, which reads, "President of the Republic of Indonesia shall hold the power of government by the Constitution." Thus, the system of governance in Indonesia adopted a presidential system of government. What is a presidential system of government? To find out, first discussed about the system of government.


I. Understanding Governance System

The term system of government comes from the combination of two words system and government. The word system is a translation of the word system (English) which means that the composition, structure, tissue, or how. While the Government comes from the government, and that comes from the word command. those words mean:

a. The command was sent perform meaningful words sesuatau

b. Government is the governing authority of a territory, region, or, the State.

c. Governance soon is deed, manner of things, affairs in the ruling

So in the broadest sense, government is the rule that deeds done by bodies of legislative, executive, and judiciary in a State in order to achieve the objectives of the country. In a narrow sense, is the government of govern actions undertaken by the executive branch and its staff in order to achieve the objectives of the country. Governmental system is defined as an intact structure consisting of various components of government working interdependent and influence in mencapaian purpose and function of government. Power in a State according to Montesquieu classified into three, namely the Executive Power which means the power to run the law or the power to run the government, the Legislative Power which means the power to form the law; And that means the power of judicial power to adjudicate violations of the law. These components largely consist of non-executive, legislative and judicial branches. Thus, the system state government described the existence of state institutions, relations between state institutions, and operation of state institutions in achieving the objectives of government in that country.
The purpose of the state government generally based on the ideals or destination countries. For example, the Indonesian state administration's goal is to protect all the people of Indonesia and to promote welfare general, the intellectual life of the nation, as well as participate implement a world order based on freedom, lasting peace and social justice. Institutions that are in a system of government of Indonesia to work together and support each other for the realization of the objectives of government in the country of Indonesia.
In a country that republican form of government, the president is head of state and shall establish departments that will be fulfilling their executive powers and fulfilling their law. Each department will be led by a minister. If all the ministers that there is coordinated by a prime minister, it can be called a council of ministers / cabinet. Cabinet may take the form of presidential and cabinet ministrial.

a. Presidential Cabinet

Presidential cabinet is a cabinet in which accountability for government policies held by the president. President of the concurrent position as prime minister so that the ministers are not accountable to parliament / the Parliament but to the president. Examples of countries that use the system presidential cabinet is Amarika States
and Indonesia

b. Cabinet Ministrial

Ministrial cabinet is a cabinet that in running the discretion of Government, a minister either individually or jointly all members kebinet responsible to the Parliament / House of Representatives. Examples of countries using the system of this cabinet are the countries in Western Europe.

When viewed from it formation, ministrial cabinets can be divided into two, namely the parliamentary and cabinet cabinet ekstraparlementer.
Parliamentary cabinet is a cabinet that was formed by taking into account and take into account that there are voices in parliament. When viewed from the composition (the composition of membership), the parliamentary cabinet was divided into three, namely the cabinet coalition, the national cabinet, and cabinet of the party.

Cabinet Ekstraparlementer kebinet that its formation is not paying attention and taking into account the voices and the situation in Parliament / House of Representatives.

II. Parliamentary and Presidential System of Government

State administration system is divided into two major classifications, namely:


1. presidential system of government;

2. parliamentary system of government.


In general, countries in the world embracing one of the government system. The existence of another system of government is considered as a variation or combination of the above two systems of government. British state is considered as the ideal type of country that adopts a parliamentary government. Bhakan, England called the Mother of Parliaments (parent of parliament), while American States is an ideal type of state with a presidential system of government.

Both countries are referred to as the ideal type for implementing the features that the executable. Britain was the first country to run a model of parliamentary government. United States as well as a pioneer in the presidential system of government. Both countries until now remained consistent in carrying out the principles of the system of government. Of the two countries, then the system of government adopted by other countries dibelahan world.

Classification of presidential and parliamentary system of government based on the relationship between the executive and legislative powers. System of government called parliamentary executive if the executive as the executive power to get the direct supervision of the legislature. Called a presidential system of government where the executive is outside the direct control of the legislature.

For clarity, the following characteristics, advantages and shortcomings of the parliamentary system of government.

The characteristics of the parliamentary system of government is as follows:
  1. The legislature or parliament is the only body whose members are elected directly by the people through elections. Parliament has wide powers as the representative and legislative body.
  2. Members parliament composed of people from the political party that won general pemiihan. A political party that wins the general election have a great chance to be the majority and have great power in parliament.
  3. The government or cabinet made up of top ministers and the prime minister as leader of the cabinet. Prime minister elected by parliament for fulfilling their executive power. In this system, executive power is in the prime minister as head of government. Cabinet members generally come from the parliament.
  4. Cabinet is responsible to the parliament and can survive all the support the majority of MPs. This means that any time the parliament to drop the cabinet if the majority of members of parliament submitted a motion of no confidence to the cabinet.
  5. Heads of state are not as well as head of government. Head of government is the prime minister, while the head of state is the president of the republic or the king / sultan in a monarchy. The head of state has no power of government. He just plays sebgai symbol of sovereignty and integrity of the country.
  6. As a proportion of parliament to drop the cabinet, the president or king on the advice of the prime minister to dissolve parliament. Furthermore, elections are held again to membentukan new parliament.
Parliamentary Government System Advantages:
  • Policy makers can be handled easily happen quickly because the adjustment of opinion between the executive and legislative branches. This is because the executive and legislative power in one party or coalition.
  • Lines of responsibility in making and implementing public policy is clear.
  • The existence of strong control of the parliament against the cabinet so the cabinet into barhati careful in running the government.
Lack of Parliamentary Government System:
  • The position of the executive / cabinet is highly dependent on majority support of parliament so that any time the cabinet can be imposed by parliament.
  • Continuation of the position of the executive or cabinet unbiased determined in accordance with his term ended because any time the cabinet can be dissolved.
  • Cabinet to control parliament. It happens when the cabinet members are members of parliament and senator from meyoritas. Because of their great influence diparlemen and parties, cabinet members can mengusai parliament.
  • Parliament became the cadre for executive positions. Their experience becomes a member of parliament and became an exploited stock is important to become ministers or other executive positions.
In the system presidential administration, the executive and legislature have an independent position. Both agencies are not directly related as in the parliamentary system of government. They are elected by the people separately.

For clarity, the following characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of presidential government system.

The characteristics of the government of the presidential system is as follows.
  1. Operator country in the hands of the president. The President is the head of state and head of government. The president was not elected by parliament, but is directly elected by the people or an assembly.
  2. Cabinet (Council of ministers) is formed by the president. Cabinet responsible to the president and not accountable to parliament or legislature.
  3. The President is not responsible to parliament. That's because the president is not elected by the parliament.
  4. President not to dissolve parliament as in parliamentary systems.
  5. Parliament has legislative power and as a representative institution. Members of parliament elected by the people.
  6. President are not under the direct supervision of parliament.
Presidential Government System Advantages:
  • Executive body is more stable position because it does not depend on parliament.
  • Term of office of the executive branch more clearly to a specific period. For example, the President of the United States the term of office is four years, President of Indonesia is five years.
  • The author, cabinet work program easily adapted to run time of his tenure.
  • Legislative regeneration is not the place for executive positions because it can be filled by outsiders, including members of parliament itself.
Lack of Presidential Government System:
  • Executive power beyond the direct control legislature so as to create absolute power.
  • Accountability system is less clear.
  • Decision-making or public policy is generally the result of bargaining between the executive and legislative branches so that it can happen no firm decision and take a long time.
III. Effect of Government System One State Against Other Countries

System of government in this world countries vary according to the wishes of the country concerned and tailored to the circumstances of the nation and country. As noted earlier, the presidential system of government and parliamentary system of government are the two model systems governance as a reference by many countries. United States and Britain respectively are considered pioneers of the presidential system of government and parliamentary system of government. Of the two models, later emulated by other countries Negar.

Examples of countries using the presidential system of government: the United States, the Philippines, Brazil, Egypt, and Argentina. And examples of countries that use the system of parliamentary government: Britain, India, Malaysia, Japan, and Australia.

Although both use a presidential or parliamentary system, there are variations tailored to the constitutional development of the country concerned. For example, Indonesia, which adopted the system of government presidential will not be exactly the same as the current presidential system of government in the United States. In fact, certain countries use mixed systems between presidential and parliamentary (mixed presidential parliamentary system). For example, the French state today. The country has a president as head of state who has great power, but there are also prime ministers appointed by the president to run the day-to-day administration.

System of government of a country is useful for other countries. One of the key uses the system of government is a system of government a country becomes to make comparisons by other countries. A country may make the comparison system of government run with the system of government that dilaksakan other countries. States can seek and find some similarities and differences in inter government. The next destination is a country to develop a system of government which is considered better than ever after making comparisons with other countries. They can also adopt a system of state administration other as a system of government in that country.
State officials, politicians, and state lawmakers often visiting overseas or interstate. They make observations, assessment, comparison of the system of government the country visited by the government of his country. After the visit of the MPs have the knowledge and insight an increasingly broad in order to develop a system of government of his country.

Development of governance system in Indonesia is also not out of the system of government held a comparison between countries. As a country with a presidential system, Indonesia has adopted many practices in the United States government. For example, presidential elections direct and cheks and balance mechanism. Golkar Party Convention to the election of 2004 was also modeled on practices in the United States convention. However, not all governance practices in Indonesia are mere imitation of the United States system of government. For example, Indonesia familiar with the institution People's Consultative Assembly, while in the United States there is no such institution.

Thus, the government of a state system can be used as comparison material or models that can be adopted as part of a system of government of other countries. United States and Britain each have been able to prove ourselves as a country that adheres to presidential and parliamentary system of government Seara ideal. System of government of the two countries subsequently much imitated by other countries in the world which of course adapted to the country concerned.
IV. Indonesian Government System

a. Indonesia Country Governance System Based on the 1945 Constitution before Amended.
Principles of the Indonesian state administration system based on the 1945 Constitution before the amendment contained in the 1945 Explanation of the seven principal key state governmental system is as follows.
  1. Indonesia is a state based on law (rechtsstaat).
  2. Constitutional System.
  3. The highest state power in the hands of the People's Consultative Assembly.
  4. The President is the organizer of the highest state government under the People's Consultative Assembly.
  5. The President is not responsible to the House of Representatives.
  6. Minister the state is supporting the president, ministers of state is not responsible to the House of Representatives.
  7. Heads of state power is not unlimited.
Based on seven key fundamental system of government, the Indonesian system according to the 1945 presidential system of government. This government system run during the New Order government under President Suharto. The hallmark of the system of government that time is a huge power in the presidency. Almost all presidential powers that be set according to the 1945 Constitution was made without involving the consideration or approval of the Parliament as a representative of the people. Therefore, the lack of supervision and without the approval of Parliament, then the power the president is very large and tend to be abused. Mekipun a weakness, a major power in the president also have its positive impact that the president can control the whole of government so as to create a compact and solid government. Governance system is more stable, not easily fall or change. Conflicts and contradictions between state officials can avoided. However, in practice the way the system of government in Indonesia was a major power in the president himself more harm than benefit the nation and state that didapatkanya.

Entering the Reformation, the Indonesian nation is determined to create a democratic system of government. To that end, governments need to be arranged a constitutional or a government based on the constitution. Constitutional government characterized that country's constitution contains
  1. the limitation of governmental power or the executive,
  2. guarantee of human rights and the rights of citizens.
Based on this, reforms need to do is make changes or amendments to the 1945 Constitution. to amend the 1945 Constitution into the constitution that is constitutional, is expected to form a better government system than the previous. Amendment of the 1945 Constitution have been made by the Assembly four times, namely in 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002. based on the 1945 That has been amended as guidance for the current system of government of Indonesia.
b. Indonesian state administration system by the 1945 Constitution was amended after
Now this system of government in Indonesia is still in transition. Before the introduction of a new government based on the 1945 results of the fourth amendment in 2002, the Indonesian system is still based the 1945 Constitution with several changes in line with the transition to a new system of government. The system's new government is expected to run from 2004 after the 2004 elections.

Principles of the Indonesian system is as follows.
  1. Unitary form with the broad principles of regional autonomy. Territory is divided into several provinces.
  2. Form of government is a republic, while the presidential system of government.
  3. The President is the head of state and also head of government. President and vice president elected directly by the people in one package.
  4. Cabinet or a minister appointed by the president and responsible to the president.
  5. Parliament consists of two parts (bicameral), House of Representatives (DPR) and Regional Representative Council (DPD). The board members are members of the Assembly. Parliament has legislative power and authority to supervise the government.
  6. The judiciary is run by the Supreme Court and judicial bodies underneath.
This government system also takes elements from the parliamentary system of government and reform to eliminate the weaknesses that exist in a presidential system. Some variations of the system of government presidential in Indonesia are as follows;
  1. The President may at any time be dismissed by the Assembly upon the recommendation of Parliament. So, the House still has the power of overseeing the president even if indirectly.
  2. Appoints an acting president in the country need consideration or approval of Parliament.
  3. The President in particular policy issue needs consideration or approval of Parliament.
  4. Parliament given more power in forming the law and the right budget (budget)
Thus, there are new changes in the government system of Indonesia. It was intended to improve the old presidential system. The new changes, including a direct election, bicameral system, the mechanism cheks and balance, and giving more power to Parliament to perform oversight and budgetary functions.


Conclusion
Describe the state government system institutions that work and go talk to each other towards the achievement of the objectives of the country. State institutions in a political system includes four main institutions, namely the executive, bureaucratic, legislative, and judicial branches. In addition, there are other institutions or other elements such as parliament, elections, and council of ministers.

The division system of government in a modern country is divided into two, namely the presidential and ministerial (parliament). Distribution of presidential and parliamentary system of government based on the relationship between the executive and legislative powers. In a parliamentary system, the executive received direct oversight from the legislature. Conversely, if the executive branch is beyond legislative oversight then the system of government is presidential.
In a republic system of government, state institutions were run according to democratic mechanisms, whereas in a monarchy system of government, it would work according to different principles.

System of government of a country different from the system of government undertaken in other countries. However, there are also some similarities between the country's system of government. For example, the two countries have the same system of government.
Changes in state government occurred during the critical, ie when the transfer of power or leadership in the state. The change of government in Indonesia occurred between 1997 to 1999. It stems from the existence monetary crisis and the economic crisis.
Translated by Google Translate
 
on March, Sunday 06/2011 15:11 by Chandra Yudiana E